# alice and bob decoder

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If Eve gets the key, then she'll be able to read all of Alice and Bob's correspondence effortlessly. Today, it is common to see reference to Alice and Bob in slide decks explaining the basic concepts of cryptographic key exchange for undergraduate audiences. The proposal itself is an interesting one (now available on Academia.edu), in part because it moves the teaching practices and discourses of cryptography outside of the context in which they were conceived. The message read: THE MAGIC WORKS ARE SQUEAMISH OSSIFRAGE. This website details the major events in the “lives” of Alice and Bob, from their birth in 1978 onwards. "[1] is believed to be easier to describe and understand than "How can B send a private message M to A in a public-key cryptosystem?" Furthermore, the secret-key distillation techniques allow Alice and Bob to recover from such errors and create a secret key out of the bits that are unknown to Eve. The publication served two important purposes. [2] As the use of Alice and Bob became more widespread, additional characters were added, sometimes each with a particular meaning. Merlin provides answers, and Arthur asks questions. Bob then uses his secret key to decode the message. Suppose I send you the word ‘BEAN’ encoded as 25114. Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman won the 2002 Turing Award for their role in designing, implementing, and commercializing public key cryptography. Then Bob mails the (unlocked) padlock to Alice, keeping the key safe. If the system worked as promised, no one in the world would be able to read the message, with two exceptions. As part of this series, Bruce Schneier (security expert and author of Applied Cryptography) appeared in a video called Who are Alice and Bob?. While Alice and Bob were born in the academic field of cryptology, they were soon being used in many other disciplines, domains, and contexts. Diffie and Hellman later won the 2015 Turing Award (the “Nobel prize” of computer science) for their work in the field. Problem. As quantum computing and quantum cryptography begins to get discussed in the literature, Alice and Bob are again referenced (for example, in Bennett et al. The narrator of The Adventures of Alice and Bob describes the origin story of Alice and Bob, “when Alice saw Bob, she fell head over heels…and squashed the algorithm.” In the story that unfolds, Eve (“a rogue intercept”) lies to the police about Alice’s identity, which results in Alice’s detention, where cunningly “she languished for years” far away from Bob. From these origins and their cross-pollinations through rational choice theory, logic, and quantum computing, Alice and Bob have slowly become common characters in economics, physics, and other engineering domains. Alice and Bob start exchanging messages using the session key. Alice and Bob show how a Caesar cipher works to encrypt and decrypt messages. As Alice and Bob became common features of the academic landscape, and as the 1990s and 2000s saw a rise of nerd and geek culture, Alice and Bob were soon found across digital culture broadly. [1]:121 Previous to this article, cryptographers typically referred to message senders and receivers as A and B, or other simple symbols. Encryption history (3) ‣ Key is too easy to guess. Are shift ciphers good? Bob chooses a secret integer b whose value is 15 and computes B = g^b mod p. In this example, B has the value of 19. For example, "How can Bob send a private message M to Alice in a public-key cryptosystem? Compute the intermediate values and the final key that Alice and Bob exchange. 9 | Permalink. Since Ellis, Cocks, and Williamson’s work on “non-secret” encryption was kept secret by the GCHQ, prior to Diffie and Hellman’s publication it was believed that encrypted communication was only possible by exchanging a cryptographic key in advance. 1990). Encryption history (3) ‣ Key is too easy to guess. Moreover, in the decades since, many attacks have been waged against the RSA cryptosystem, but none have yet to be successful and the design is still considered secure. ‣ Deterministic.‣ FLAWS ON THESE CIPHERS 23. Similarly, Alice and Bob have become critical for university teaching of cryptology and cybersecurity. James H. Ellis, Clifford Cocks, and Malcolm Williamson. Diffie and Hellman started working together immediately, and drafted an early version of “New Directions in Cryptography.” Some of this early work was presented to an information theory workshop in 1975, and was then revised to substantively address similar work on cryptography also being developed by Ralph Merkle. Further, Parathasarathy’s short paper reflected deeper concerns about the globalization of technology. The paper demonstrated that it was possible to securely exchange information over non-secure channels, which they called public key cryptography. In this paper (largely identical to their MIT technical report published a year earlier), Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman need to describe the complex secure communication scenarios possible with their version of public key cryptography. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. Alice and Bob are characters who show up in my math videos to illustrate key concepts. With this public interest also came interest by the intelligence community. This volume was published in 1981 to celebrate Martin Gardner’s 65th birthday, on October 21, 1979 (Gardner, himself, was extremely important to the success of the RSA algorithm). At the same time, gendered assumptions about the characters of Alice and Bob have been read into their fictional lives. The first mention of Alice and Bob in the context of cryptography was in Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman's 1978 article "A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Depiction of Alice, Bob, and Eve in academic slide deck. By the 1990s, the Internet boom was beginning and RSA Data Security was positioned to be a key player, since their security software was essential for emerging opportunities like ecommerce. The couple is thus re-introduced: “Perhaps it will make the ground rules clearer if we imagine two players, Bob and Alice… .”, In the same year, two more academic publications make mention of Alice and Bob. ~~111 " minutes" When working problems of this type, the key is in the set up and the trick is in working it out in "per hour" units. The original, generic characters. As was customary for cryptology literature by this point, Charles Bennett, Giles Brassard, and Jean-Marc Roberts opened their 1985 abstract “How to Reduce Your Enemy’s Information” with a story about Alice and Bob. ‣ Key has to be send to Bob. On his own admission, Ellis’ number theory was weak and so he was unable to find a suitable method for the encryption process—a process that would require some technique that would be easy to solve in the one direction, but hard to reverse. In a retrospective article in Network World (2005), Gordon describes the long-term impact of his speech, “Today, nobody remembers I invented Strong Primes, but everyone knows me as the guy who wrote the story of Alice and Bob.” Indeed, Gordon’s speech marks an important fact about the history of Alice and Bob—Alice and Bob are key elements of the conceptual and discursive frameworks of contemporary cryptography. In the “RSA paper,” “A” and “B” were renamed Alice and Bob. This means you're free to copy and share these comics (but not to sell them). Without the decryption key, this task also seems impossible. In fact, in the two previous articles by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, introducing the RSA cryptosystem, there is no mention of Alice and Bob. In the ramp-up to the dot.com boom, RSA Data Security was sold to Security Dynamics in April 1996. Alice and Bob exchange a shift cipher key using the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. The “public” part could be freely exchanged on insecure channels, and when combined with the “private” part in a complicated back and forth exchange (later known as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange), ad hoc encrypted communication over insecure channels was possible. A depiction of Alice in Portuguese. * Each team nominates a 'transmitter', who attempts to securely send a given message back to their team. Paul asks questions, and Carole provides answers. Lawrence Roberts, an essential figure in the creation of the ARPANET, used an image of an unnamed woman from Playboy magazine for his academic article on image processing. Blum writes: “They have just divorced, live in different cities, want to decide who gets the car.” From this point on, Alice and Bob have a history and, soon, will start to acquire personalities, and eventually friends. In 2012, the computer scientist Srini Parthasarathy wrote a document entitled “Alice and Bob can go on a holiday!”. Because of this limitation, cryptography was limited to important communications—diplomatic, military—and outside of the reach of civilians. Used as an alternative to the eavesdropper Eve. Nonetheless, Alice and Bob were critical for how Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman understood and later communicated their complex algorithm. But over time, popular depictions of Alice, Bob, and Eve paint the three in a sordid heteronormative affair of one kind or another–Eve as a jilted wife listening into her husband’s conversations with Alice, or alternatively with Eve as the “cheating adversary”. In February, 1978, Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman published their findings in an article in Communications of the ACM, now referred to widely as the “RSA paper.” It is in the “RSA paper” that Alice and Bob were born. Calculate Alice’s and Bob’s public keys, TA and TB . Bob, compute SecretKeyB = A b mod p = A b mod 541. For instance, we're told that with A and B working together, they can finish the job in 2 hours. Is this game-theory or sieve question? In 2008, Physics World readers voted this cover one of their favourite covers of all time. Late that same night, Rivest called Adleman and talked him through the key points of the algorithm—“something about prime numbers, exponentiation, and on like that,” Adleman recalled. The first to be added was Eve, the "eavesdropper." The names are conventional, and where relevant may use a rhyming mnemonic to associate the name with the typical role of that person. In Shamir, Rivest and Adleman’s 1981 chapter for Mathematical Gardner, Alice and Bob were the players of “mental poker” over a telephone line, as also in Blum’s 1981 article. In the case of Alice and Bob, the presumption that Alice is a woman and Bob is a man aids in their use, since (in English), gendered pronouns enable easy reference (“he said, she said”). So I am just doing the calculations once for Alice's frame for Alice and Bob's frame for Bob. In the cryptology literature that follows, most but not all publications make reference to Alice and Bob, often in their first line. Synopsis. A free, light and easy to use client-side PGP tool. While Ellis, Cocks, and Williamson were inventing “non-secret” encryption at GCHQ, Diffie had become inspired by John McCarthy’s investigation of cryptography for large computer networks (at the behest of Larry Roberts at IPTO). Their influence continues to grow outside of academia as well: Alice and Bob are now a part of geek lore, and subject to narratives and visual depictions that combine pedagogy with in-jokes, often reflecting of the sexist and heteronormative environments in which they were born and continue to be used. aelguindy 3 years ago + 0 comments. Type II was ciphony equipment for medium-quality security that was transportable, if not entirely portable. Consider, for example, Ivan Sutherland, the so-called “father of computer graphics.” In his 1963 MIT PhD dissertation, he depicted a “winking girl” using the revolutionary Sketchpad software he developed. Alice composes a message or information to Bob encrypted with Bob’s public key. In their paper, as was the tradition in cryptology research, Diffie and Hellman referred to the communicating parties as “A” and “B.” A and B were largely featureless—presumptively male, symbolic, and abstract. a. With p = 11 and g = 2, suppose Alice and Bob choose private keys SA = 5 and SB = 12, respectively. Source: Bruce Schneier - Who are Alice & Bob? Gardner’s column, “Mathematical Games” was published monthly from the 1950s to the 1980s and is widely recognized for its impact on the popularization of “recreational” mathematics. Used as an alternative to the eavesdropper Eve in several South Asian nations. Like SIGSALY, the Type II device was unusual in that its “encryption” (technically, scrambling) was made possible by the direct involvement of the receiving party, and without the need for pre-arranged exchange of information. In January 1974, Malcolm Williamson published an internal report detailing another possible implementation of Ellis’ non-secret encryption; this time, Williamson’s algorithm was basically a version of the one later identified by Diffie and Hellman, in their famous “New Directions” paper, which was the first unclassified description of public-key cryptography. Source: "Picture coding using pseudo-random noise" Lawrence Roberts, Source: "Jennifer in paradise: the story of the first Photoshopped image" Gordon Comstock. As other characters were added, they too were given typical definitions, personalities, and life stories. So, what are Alice and Bob to do? Alice can choose {4} to make 4. A decade later, Alexander Sawchuk and his team at the University of Southern California used another image from Playboy magazine to demonstrate image processing. A third participant, usually of malicious intent. Alice and Bob each start with their own, private, values R and G, as well as a public common value Y. Alice uses Y along with her private value to create RY, and Bob … Alice and Bob are playing a game yet again. After their birth in 1978, Alice and Bob soon became tropes of cryptology research. So far, the RSA algorithm has proven robust (given sufficiently long key bit lengths). Ciphers Where Alice and Bob Need to Meet Exposition by William Gasarch We will use three characters: Alice and Bob who want to communicate secretly, and Eve who wants to see what they are talking about. They called their invention “public key” cryptography, and it would soon enable ecommerce, global banking and finance, private personal communication, and—now that it had escaped the confines of the intelligence community—all of the ills associated with the dark corners of today’s digital world. Since their invention in 1978, they have at once been called “inseparable,” and have been the subject of numerous divorces, travels, and torments. Scenario:? Visual depictions of Alice, Bob, Eve, and others used in university classrooms and elsewhere have replicated and reified the gendered assumptions read onto Alice and Bob and their cryptographic family, making it clear that Bob is the subject of communications with others, who serve as objects, and are often secondary players to his experience of information exchange. [31][32] More alphabetical names are used as required, e.g. Even the state-of-the-art Arpanet, which later became the Internet, encrypted communication required the careful coordination of cryptographic keys across distant “Private Line Interfaces.” As the number of nodes in the secure network increased, so too did the labour of exchanging keys. Alice and Bob may use this secret number as their key to a Vigenere cipher, or as their key to some other cipher. The problem facing Alice and Bob in Bennett, Brassard, and Roberts’ narrative is that a seemingly secure channel for communication is rendered “imperfect in various ways: transmission errors can occur, and partial information can leak to Eve, the eavesdropper, who also can modify the transmissions arbitrarily.” This is the first known appearance of Eve—a disruptive force in the history of Alice and Bob—and is the basis of their more widely cited paper “Privacy Amplification by Public Discussion,” published in the SIAM Journal on Computing in April 1988. Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman realized that their public key cryptography algorithm was commercially valuable, and in December 1978 they filed for a patent (through MIT) and began assembling a commercial enterprise, RSA Data Security. Women have a long history of being depicted as technical objects in computing (see also Brahnam, Karanikas, and Weaver, 2011). Alice sends her messages to Bob with a signature generated using some known signature-creation algorithm implemented as genSignature() below. Sort . This process was complicated and labour intensive, requiring trusted personnel to transport codes on sheets of paper or electro-mechanical “fill” devices. In the year following the publication of “New Directions,” Rivest and Shamir made many attempts to develop a new workable algorithm for key generation—trying countless options with little success. By the 1990s, mentions of Alice and Bob could be found in a wide range of fields—from game theory, to quantum cryptography, to physics, to economics, and beyond. Cryptographers would often begin their academic papers with reference to Alice and Bob. Prove that, in general, Alice and Bob obtain the same symmetric key, that is, prove S = S´. Rivest stayed up through the night, drafting a first version of the paper that described their algorithm. 5. Despite being more comfortable in the halls of academia, and with little business experience to guide them, Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman received outside investment ($150,000) to purchase the rights to their algorithm from MIT (MIT still held the patent) (Yost, 2007 p.614). Gordon’s speech explains coding theory in relation to secret communication. This was an onerous and risky process that needed to be repeated often (it is critical to change cryptographic keys frequently to maintain security). Research by Quinn DuPont and Alana Cattapan. “Mathematical Games: A new kind of cipher that would take millions of years to break” by Martin Gardner. What do we know? Building an ideal Quantum Computer. […]. ‣ Key has to be send to Bob. There are several stones arranged in a row, and each stone has an associated value which is an integer given in the array stoneValue.. Alice and Bob take turns, with Alice starting first. It was this idea of involving the receiver in the process of secure information exchange that spurred Ellis to contemplate if such an arrangement might be possible with “ordinary encipherment,” instead of audio scrambling. 3. [1] Subsequently, they have become common archetypes in many scientific and engineering fields, such as quantum cryptography, game theory and physics. Notice the superscript is the lower case variable you chose. He read David Khan’s famous survey of cryptography, The Codebreakers, met the famous computer scientist Donald Knuth, and finally, in 1974 travelled to Stanford to meet with Martin “Marty” Hellman, a professor of electronic engineering (and former employee of IBM) on the referral of friend and colleague Alan Konheim. Blum’s report is the first in what would become a tradition: literature that invents their situational context and backstory. Through the rest of the 1990s, RSA Data Security was courted by companies wishing to purchase it. I am not sure if the question asked it but I also did prime frame for Alice and Bob. Gordon’s speech collected the nerdy lore of Alice and Bob: Bob was a stockbroker while Alice was a stock speculator, Alice and Bob tried to defraud insurance companies, Alice and Bob played poker over the phone, Alice tried to hide her financial dealings with Bob from her husband, Alice and Bob are wanted by both the Tax Authority and the Secret Police, and Alice doesn’t trust Bob because of some unknown past experience. First Bob buys a padlock and matching key. In the history of cryptology, women tend to be either systematically excluded or reduced to objects. In 1984, a year after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman received the patent for the RSA algorithm—and still early days for Alice and Bob—the cryptologist John Gordon gave an “after-dinner speech” about Alice and Bob at an April conference in Zurich. "[7], Although Alice and Bob were invented with no reference to their personality, authors soon began adding colorful descriptions. The secret message was not revealed until 1994, when a team led by Derek Atkins, Michael Graff, Arjen Lenstra, and Paul Leyland, in collaboration with hundreds of volunteers online, took the “brute force” approach to decrypting it. This is the first ever mention of Alice and Bob in any connection to cryptography, and the start of a long and storied history. Discussions. In November 1976, Whitfield “Whit” Diffie and Martin Hellman published a paper entitled “New Directions in Cryptography” in IEEE Transactions in Information Theory. The RSA cryptosystem soon became a key part of digital information infrastructure, and helped define the massive changes that the Internet later brought about. Download full-text (PDF) for offline reading (6200 words; 30 minutes reading time). They send each other secrets, they get locked in jail, they get married, they get divorced, they’re trying to date each other. And as cryptology became a standard part of computer science and engineering curricula, faculty began to portray Alice and Bob in a classroom setting using clip art and other images that personified Alice and Bob (usually in white, heteronormative, and gendered ways), which also made these abstract characters visible to the world. Cocks’ implementation, it would later turn out, was basically a version of the 1978 RSA algorithm. For interactive proof systems there are other characters: The names Alice and Bob are also often used to name the participants in thought experiments in physics. c. There is a grid with N rows and M columns. Our unique technology of self-correcting superconducting quantum bit, the cat qubit, allows for a much simpler road to fault-tolerant and universal gate-based quantum computing. "Alice and Bob (and Carol and Dick and Eve)". Alice and Bob, exchange A and B verbally in the presences of Carl (Or as Chux0r points out, perhaps Christmas "Eve"). Detail from painting by Molly Crabapple, entitled "Alice, Bob, and Eve". While a hacker can get the public key, only Bob will have the private key to open and decode the email. And finally, the first “Photoshopped” image was of a topless woman on a beach: Jennifer, the software developer John Knoll’s then-girlfriend. We know that a certain job can be done by different combinations of people (A, B, C) in different times. One night following Passover Seder in April 1977, Rivest drank “a disproportionate amount of the wine” and had a spark of insight for a one-way function, which later became the accepted solution. Today, there are several events a year, addressing a range of issues in security and information technology, with an annual attendance of approximately 45,000. Further, it aimed to be an “indispensable source” to working cryptographers (Highland, 1996). Bob takes Alice's public result and raises it to the power of his private number resulting in the same shared secret. For instance, the famous article from CRYPTO 84 by Taher ElGamal, entitled “A Public Key Cryptosystem and a Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms” makes no mention of Alice and Bob. In this work, just a year or two after their birth, we already see evidence of the epistemological centrality and stereotypical depictions of Alice and Bob. She was a central figure in Steven Rudich’s dissertation on one-way functions (1988), in Rudich and Impagliazzo’s conference paper on a similar topic (i.e. #mapping

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